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    25 April 2024, Volume 46 Issue 2
    Research Paper
    Influence of exogenous additives on the gelatinization characteristics and nutritional quality of bay scallop mince(Argopecten irradians)
    HUANG Sijia, SUN Shiwen, LI Meng
    2024, 46(2):  111-120.  DOI: 10.14012/j.cnki.fjsc.2024.02.001
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    In order to develop high quality scallop mince products, this paper took frozen Argopecten irradians scallops as the raw material, and selects soybean isolate protein, hydroxypropyl cassava starch, carrageenan, and egg albumen to be added to the A.irradians mince, which explored the effects of exogenous additives on the gelatinization characteristics and nutritional quality of A.irradians mince.The results showed that 5% soybean isolate protein (Group B) and hydroxypropyl cassava starch (Group C) were effective in improving the textural properties when added to A.irradians mince respectively, and the latter was able to significantly improve the water-holding capacity of A.irradians mince products, but 8% egg albumen (Group D) or 0.6% carrageenan (Group E) decreased the hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and water-holding capacity of A.irradians mince. The combination of exogenous additives (Group F: 7% hydroxypropyl tapioca starch, 1.0% carrageenan,Group G: 8% hydroxypropyl cassava starch+1.5% carrageenan+5% egg albumen+4% soybean isolate protein) had a lesser effect on the fabrication structure of the A.irradians mince and was able to improve the water-holding capacity. Group F A.irradians mince products had higher sensory ratings in terms of flavor, color and histomorphology. The A.irradians mince products from groups C, F and G all had superior amino acid and fatty acid ratios, with significant differences in amino acid composition, and significantly higher unsaturated fatty acid contents than saturated fatty acids. The content of EPA+DHA accounted for 45.04%, 44.74% and 30.87% of the total fatty acids, separately. It could be seen that the type and proportion of exogenous additives significantly affect the gelatinization behavior and nutritional quality of minced scallop meat in A.irradians, providing theoretical data for the subsequent development of scallop mince products with different textural structures and cost levels.

    The study of the oxygen consumption rate and asphyxiation point of juvenile Eleutheronema tetradactylum under different temperatures
    LIN Xin, XIE Xiyao, OU Youjun, LI Jia’er, WU Shuiqing
    2024, 46(2):  121-128.  DOI: 10.14012/j.cnki.fjsc.2024.02.002
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    To investigate the changes in oxygen consumption rate and suffocation point of Eleutheronema tetradactylum under different water temperature conditions, the experiment compared the effects of different temperatures (22,27,32 ℃) on the oxygen consumption of E.etradactylum with an average length of (4.5 ± 0.5) cm and an average body mass of (1.5 ± 0.5) g.The experimental results show that: 1) Under the conditions of this experiment, the higher the water temperature, the shorter the time for all juvenile fish to die, and the higher the mass concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the water. The suffocation point at 22 ℃ is 1.39 mg/L, the suffocation point at 27 ℃ is 1.54 mg/L, and the suffocation point at 32 ℃ is 1.76 mg/L; 2) The oxygen consumption rate of juvenile fish in each temperature group showed a decreasing trend with the extension of experimental time, and the higher the temperature, the faster the decrease rate of oxygen consumption rate. When the oxygen consumption rate decreased from 1.418, 2.346, and 4.243 mg/(g·h) at the beginning of the experiment to 0.4-0.5 mg/(g·h), all juvenile fish died, and the changes in different temperature groups slowed down. The concentration difference between adjacent observation points was not significant (P>0.05), while the survival rate of juvenile fish in the control group was 100%; 3) During the experiment, when the DO content of each temperature group was 2.53, 2.90, and 3.10 mg/L, the juvenile fish began to exhibit disorderly movement, restlessness, occasional jumping out of the water, and gill opening. As the experiment continued, the frequency of the juvenile fish jumping out of the water increased, and the amplitude of gill cover vibration increased accordingly. After intense stress, they lay still at the bottom of the water, twitching and suffocating to death.

    Effects of salinity on digestive enzyme and non-specific immune enzyme of juvenile Sebastiscus marmoratus
    JIANG Fei, XU Jiabo, LIN Qi, SHI Yonghai, JIA Chuipan, YAN Yinlong, DENG Pingping, YU Aiqing, ZHANG Zhiwen, YUAN Xincheng
    2024, 46(2):  129-135.  DOI: 10.14012/j.cnki.fjsc.2024.02.003
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    To investigate the changes in digestive enzyme activities in the intestine and stomach, as well as the activities of non-specific immunoenzymes in the liver of juvenile Sebastiscus marmoratus under salinity stress, and to assess the ability of the juveniles to adapt to sudden changes in salinity, a salinity experiment was conducted. The experiment comprised four groups, representing different salinity gradient levels: 6, 8, 10, and 20 (control). These groups were referred to as S6, S8, S10, and S20, respectively. Results indicated that at the acute stress period of 96 hours, the activities of trypsin, pepsin, amylase, and lipase in S10 and S20 were significantly higher compared to those in S6 and S8 (P<0.05). Conversely, the activities of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase were significantly higher in S6 and S8 compared to S10 and S20 (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the activities of ACP and AKP between S6 and S8 (P>0.05). Additionally, the activities of ACP and AKP increased initially and then decreased over time in S10 and S20. These activities in S10 and S20 peaked at 12 hours, signifying a significant increase compared to other salinity levels. These findings suggest that the optimal salinity for breeding juvenile S.marmoratus ranges from 10 to 20.

    Study on the effects of Bacillus subtili on the gut microbiota of different fish varieties and water quality as water additive
    ZHANG Jingjing, LIN Yu, CHEN Duhuang, CHEN Bin, XUE Lingzhan, FAN Haiping
    2024, 46(2):  136-146.  DOI: 10.14012/j.cnki.fjsc.2024.02.004
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    To investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis as water additive on gut microbiota in Spinibarbus caldwelli, Acrossheilus hemispinus and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and its purification effect on aquaculture water, the gut microflora in the foregut, midgut and hindgut of three fishes were investigated through 16S rDNA sequencing and the pH, the levels of ammonia nitrogen and nitrite in the aquatic water were measured. The results suggested B.subtilis could reduce the contents of ammonia nitrogen by 46.39% in water stably since the 11th day and nitrite by 84.61% in water stably since the 19th day. The gut microflora in each intestinal site between experiment and control group were significantly different overall and the abundance of intestinal flora decreased in the experiment group. On the whole,in experiment group, the abundance of intestinal microbiota decreased and the phylum abundance of Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes increased and decreased, respectively. The genus levels of Bacillus increased while pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas and Vibrio decreased. The KEGG signal pathways showed that the metabolic functions of the H.molitrix were enhanced. This study showed that B.subtilis could reduce the level of ammonia nitrogen and nitritein in the aquatic water and purify the aquatic wate, while inhibiting the propagation of harmful intestinal microbiota and improving the metabolic level of intestinal microbiota in H.molitrix.

    Effects of environmental factors on the development of Saccharina japonica ‘Dongfang No.7’ gametophyte
    LI Xia, CHEN Shuxiu, WANG Weiwei, SUN Juan, LI Xiaojie
    2024, 46(2):  147-155.  DOI: 10.14012/j.cnki.fjsc.2024.02.005
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    The male and female gametophytes of Saccharina japonica ‘Dongfang No.7’ were cultured at different temperatures, photoperiods and nitrogen concentrations to observe the development of gametophytes and explore the optimum environmental conditions for the formation of gametophyte oogonium, ovulation and young sporophyte. The results showed that temperature, photoperiod and nitrogen concentration had significant effects on the development of gametophyte. The rate of gametophyte development at 12 ℃ and 15 ℃ (60%-70%) was significantly higher than that at other temperature groups. At 20 ℃, the gametophyte was in the vegetative growth stage without development. The rate of gametophyte development (80%) in 10L∶14D group was significantly higher than that in other photoperiod groups, followed by that in 6L∶18D group, but the length of young sporophyte in this condition was significantly lower than that in other photoperiod groups. When the concentration of N was 2 mg/L and 4 mg/L, the final development rate was more than 75%, and the sporophyte accounted for about 70%, which was significantly higher than other groups. This study provides theoretical basis and data support for artificial breeding of gametophyte of S.japonica ‘Dongfang No.7’.

    Effects of high temperature stress on the lethality of fry and adult Glyptosternon maculatum
    ZENG Rongjun, LIU Xiaorui, GENG Qingbao, TANG Xuemei, FANG Yuanlin, WU Lei, ZHANG Huan, GU Zhengxuan, YU Meng
    2024, 46(2):  156-161.  DOI: 10.14012/j.cnki.fjsc.2024.02.006
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    In order to explore the tolerance of Glyptosternon maculatum to extreme temperatures at different stages, this study performed acute hyperthermic stress on the fry and adult fish, determined semi-lethal time at each temperature, and measured the respiratory rate of adult fish under hyperthermia. The results showed that the semi-lethal time (LT50) of fry G.maculatum shortened with the increase of temperature, and there was a significant difference in the LT50 of the different temperature groups (P<0.05), among which LT50 was 13.53 h at 28 ℃ and 71.20 h at 24 ℃. The respiratory rate of adult fish under high temperature stress increased significantly, and the semi-lethal time (LT50) of adult fish at 24 ℃ was 15.6 h, which was much lower than that of fry at this temperature. The results showed that there were differences in heat tolerance at different growth stages, and attention should be paid to water temperature control during the breeding process. The short-term lethal temperature of fry was 28 ℃, and the short-term lethal temperature of adult fish was 24 ℃. The results of this study can provide basic data for healthy breeding and further study of high temperature tolerance mechanism of G.maculatum.

    The acute toxicity of three aquatic drugs to Cyprinus carpio Songhe
    ZHANG Jian, LI He, LI Jingwei, HU Zongyun, LIU Zongying, XIAO Zuguo, FENG Yan, WU Lina, YAN Youli
    2024, 46(2):  162-170.  DOI: 10.14012/j.cnki.fjsc.2024.02.007
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    The acute toxicity of povidone iodine, trichloroisocyanuric acid, and lambda-cyhalothrin on Cyprinus carpio Songhe [(118.8±5.63) cm in length, (72.75±15.11) g in body mass]was investigated at a water temperature of (20±1) ℃ using a static bioassay method. The results revealed that the median lethal concentration (LC50) of povidone iodine was 870.551 mg/L at 24 h, 790.650 mg/L at 48 h, 694.959 mg/L at 72 h, and 654.692 mg/L at 96 h, with a safe concentration of 195.653 mg/L. For trichloroisocyanuric acid, the LC50 was 23.076 mg/L at 24 h, 19.608 mg/L at 48 h, 15.674 mg/L at 72 h, and 13.871 mg/L at 96 h, with a safe concentration of 4.247 mg/L. The LC50 of lambda-cyhalothrin was 4.620 mg/L at 24 h, 2.216 mg/L at 48 h, 1.205 mg/L at 72 h, and 0.847 mg/L at 96 h, with a safe concentration of 0.153 mg/L. The descending order of toxicity among the three substances to C.carpio Songhe was lambda-cyhalothrin > trichloroisocyanuric acid > povidone iodine. Based on toxicity evaluation criteria, povidone iodine and trichloroisocyanuric acid exhibited low toxicity for C.carpio Songhe and could be considered as the preferred choices in practical applications. However, lambda-cyhalothrin demonstrated high toxicity for C.carpio Songhe, requiring careful consideration and cautious use in practice.

    Identification of fish larvae and juvenile by DNA barcoding in Xuwen Jiaowei sea area,Guangdong Province
    WANG Sijin, WANG Jinrun, CHEN Yanying, HOU Gang
    2024, 46(2):  171-180.  DOI: 10.14012/j.cnki.fjsc.2024.02.008
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    In this study, COⅠgene fragments were used as DNA barcodes for the molecular identification in fish larvae and juvenile from Xuwen Jiaowei coral reef sea areas in summer and autumn of 2018—2020, and its applicability to the identification in the early stages of fish was investigated. A total of 199 high quality COⅠsequences of fish larvae and juvenile were obtained, among them, 69 sequences matching to species were identified to the species level, and 110 sequences were identified to the genus, family and order level. In all, 32 taxa of 20 genera in 6 orders and 19 families were successfully identified. Among them, 17 taxa were identified to the species level, 5 taxa to the genus level, 9 taxa to the family level, 1 taxa to the order level, and another 9 taxa were not identified. Gobiidae had the most species and quantity in family level, accounting for 17.07% and 31.16%, respectively, followed by Leiognathidae with 7.31% and 8.04%, respectively. The present study indicated that the proportion of species identification based on DNA barcoding for fish larvae and juvenile in the Xuwen coral reef sea area was relatively low, and the gap of DNA barcode sequences for adult fish species was an important factor. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a reliable DNA barcode database for local adult fish. Combined traditional morphological and molecular method might improve the accuracy in identifying fish larvae and juvenile.

    Study on the biological characteristics of Oratosquilla oratoria based on the survey of stow net in Zhangpu offshore waters, Fujian Province
    LIU Yong, XU Chunyan, ZHUANG Zhidong, WU Tongjin, YU Wei, CAI Jiandi, MA Chao, XIE Shaoqing, YU Jiayue, SHEN Changchun
    2024, 46(2):  181-189.  DOI: 10.14012/j.cnki.fjsc.2024.02.009
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    Mantis shrimp (Oratosquilla oratoria), the main catches of stow net fishing vessel in Zhangpu, Fujian Province, were followed and sampled monthly from August 2022 to April 2023. A total of 368 samples were used to determine the body length and body mass, to characterize the feeding intensity and female ovarian development, and to calculate the ratio of males to females in the catch, in order to analyze the fishery biology of O.oratoria. The results showed that the ratio of female to male was 1∶1.115 in the catch of O.oratoria, the dominant body length group was 110-130 mm, the dominant body mass advantage group was 15.0-25.0 g,and there was no significant difference in average body length and average body mass between male and female samples. The relationship between body length and body mass was W = 2.140×10-5L2.882 (R2 =0.946, n=368). The gonadal maturity of female O.oratoria was between stage Ⅰ-Ⅲ, and stage III individuals mainly appeared from February to April. The average feeding grade of O.oratoria was 1.44, of which grade 1 was the most. The average annual condition factor index of O.oratoria was 1.226, and the male was slightly larger than the female.

    Research progress on immunoglobulin of yolk in the prevention and treatment of aquatic animal diseases
    ZHENG Jiemin, YOU Jiantao, WU Liang, LIN Jiaming, HE Yibin, XU Bin, XUE Haibo
    2024, 46(2):  190-197.  DOI: 10.14012/j.cnki.fjsc.2024.02.010
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    Yolk immunoglobulin (IgY), a polyclonal antibody, has garnered considerable attention for its role in conferring passive immunity against bacterial and viral diseases. This paper comprehensively reviews the current research on the fundamental structure and physicochemical properties of IgY. Additionally, the paper emphasize the diverse applications of IgY in preventing and treating bacterial and viral diseases, offering valuable insights for future research and the broader utilization of IgY in aquaculture.

    Preparation and modification of biochar and its application in the treatment of aquaculture wastewater
    ZENG Cheng, ZHENG Huidong, XU Yibin, LIN Qi
    2024, 46(2):  198-206.  DOI: 10.14012/j.cnki.fjsc.2024.02.011
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    Biochar has gained significant attention in the field of sewage treatment, both domestically and internationally, due to its favorable adsorption capabilities and low cost. While ordinary biochar does exhibit certain adsorption effects, its performance is less effective when dealing with high concentrations or specific pollutants. However, the performance of modified biochar in sewage treatment shows significant improvement compared to unmodified biochar. Modification processes result in a larger specific surface area, larger pores, and a higher concentration of functional groups. These modifications not only enhance its adsorption capability, but also enable the specific adsorption of organic pollutants, making it highly valuable in the treatment of aquaculture wastewater. This paper provides a review of the recent research status of biochar at both domestic and international levels, highlighting several common methods of biochar preparation and modification, as well as discussing their respective advantages and disadvantages. The mechanisms of action of biochar and its application in the treatment of aquaculture wastewater are explained, while also exploring the factors that have hindered the development and adoption of biochar. Countermeasures and suggestions are proposed, along with a prospect of its application prospects in the field.

    Research progress of paralytic shellfish toxins in aquatic products
    NIU Yaolu, SU Jie
    2024, 46(2):  207-214.  DOI: 10.14012/j.cnki.fjsc.2024.02.012
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    In recent years, harmful algal blooms have frequently occurred in coastal waters of China. Among the microcystins produced by these blooms, paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) are the most widely distributed and harmful, leading to significant concerns. When marine organisms ingest PST, they are passed up the food chain and accumulate, eventually posing a serious threat to human health, the environment, and the ecosystem.Therefore, this paper primarily introduces the definition, distribution, harm, toxicity mechanism, enrichment, and transformation of PST. It also discusses the methods used to detect PST, including biological, chemical, and biochemical approaches. The paper expounds on research trends and regulatory recommendations for PST. Its aim is to serve as a reference for the improvement of research, detection, and prevention of PST.